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Published in Trends in Microbiology | Volume 30, Issue 1, January 2022, Pages 34-46

Authors: Andrea Iorio, Manuele Biazzo, Simone Gardini, Andrea Onetti Muda, Carlo Federico Perno, Bruno Dallapiccola, Lorenza Putignani


A comprehensive understanding of the microbiome–host relationship in respiratory diseases can be elucidated by exploring the landscape of virome–bacteriome–host metabolome data through unsupervised ’multi-omics‘ approaches. Here, we describe how the composition and function of airway and gut virome and bacteriome may contribute to pathogen establishment and propagation in airway districts and how the virome–bacteriome communities may react to respiratory diseases.

A new systems medicine approach, including the characterization of respiratory and gut microbiome, may be crucial to demonstrate the likelihood and odds of respiratory disease pathophysiology, opening new avenues to the discovery of a chain of causation for key bacteria and viruses in disease severity.

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